The destruction of Songhai left Borno uncontested and until the 18th century Borno dominated northern Nigeria.Despite Borno's hegemony the Hausa states continued to wrestle for ascendancy.Gradually Borno's position weakened; its inability to check political rivalries between competing Hausa cities was one example of this decline.Another factor was the military threat of the Tuareg centered at Agades who penetrated the northern districts of Borno.Another Igbo kingdom to form was the Arochukwu kingdom, which emerged after the Aro-Ibibio wars from 1630-1720.The Aro Confederacy dominated southeastern Nigeria with pockets of influence in Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon.The earliest signs of external contact in the Hausa area, which would lead to the development of the pre-colonial period, are found via carbon dating.These sites are classified by archaeologists as hills, large-scale occupation sites, and iron-working sites – although the former two are lacking stratified evidence.
Morocco was unable to control the empire and the various provinces, including the Hausa states, became independent.
They also showed a vast advancement in cultural expression which was rare for civilizations in the area around that time.
Many of the settlements also contained expertly coursed stone walls which showed the need for either protection from animals or other settlements.
Concurrently the Sayfawa dynasty of Kanem-Bornu reconquered its Kanem homeland and extended control west to Hausa cities not under Songhai authority.
Largely because of Songhai's influence, there was a blossoming of Islamic learning and culture.