A specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a "cut site" by a restriction enzyme.
A brain circuit involved with alertness and direction of attention to selected events; consists of a loose network of interneurons running through the brainstem, plus certain neurons in the thalamus that function as an extension of this network.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses. A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus, functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Consists of r RNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.(2) In cells, the oxygen-requiring stage in the breakdown and release of energy from fuel molecules.The membrane potential characteristic of a nonconducting, excitable cell, with the inside of the cell more negative than the outside.An enzyme whose synthesis is inhibited by a specific metabolite.A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene.The innermost layer of the vertebrate eye, containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) and neurons; transmits images formed by the lens to the brain via the optic nerve.The light-absorbing pigment in rods and cones of the vertebrate eye. Together with proteins, it forms the structure of ribosomes that coordinate the sequential coupling of t RNA molecules to the series of m RNA codons.The formation of new gene combinations; in eukaryotes, may be accomplished by new associations of chromosomes produced during sexual reproduction or crossing over; in prokaryotes, may be accomplished through transformation, conjugation, or transduction.The short time immediately after an action potential in which the neuron cannot respond to another stimulus, owing to an increase in potassium permeability.A type of embryonic development in deuterostomes in which the planes of cell division that transform the zygote into a ball of cells are either parallel or perpendicular to the polar axis, thereby aligning tiers of cells one above the other.A method of determining the age of fossils and rocks using half-lives of radioactive isotopes.