This puts the Bronze age onwards as the Age of civilization, starting towards the end of the Neolithic Age.
In the below discussion, I will look at three major lifestyle groupings: The third is a complex grouping.
Firstly, I will delve briefly into the genetic record of our early history.
Some nuclear DNA sequences (including Y-chromosome data) and mt DNA indicate that modern humans originated and migrated relatively recently from a subset of the African population, putting Africa as the home of modern humanity.
Evidence suggests that both the size and robustness of humans, and their brain volume has decreased over the last 10,000 years or so (Sci. For a very detailed history of the past 20,000 years refer to Mithen's (2003) 600 page book.
The traditional classification of human social evolution is into pre-history and recordered history.
Using 1000 human samples representing current racial distributions, they established a frequency distribution for the 10 haplogroups.
A single Sardinian was in Group I and there was an Group II from Pakistan.The genetic information suggests an early diversification, dispersal and widespread distribution of human populations within Africa.Palaeoanthropological records suggest that this occurred during an interglacial 130,000 to 90,000 years ago.This is supported by faunal evidence, showing the presence of modern humans and east African animal species in the Middle East at this time (Underhill, et al. Outside of Africa, there is evidence for the early formation of a non-African grouping, represented today by the Australians, New Guineans, southeast Asians, Japanese and central Asians.All Y-chromosomes that are not exclusively African contain an identifying mutation, that originated from one of the two African groups, and evolved into three distinct sub-clusters, representing the deepest structuring of Y-chromosome diversity outside Africa.Humanity has passed through three major evolutionary phases - hunter gatherer , agricultural and technological .It is difficult to generalise on human lifestyles as adaptation to the environment is a continual, cultural and learned process.Instead of genetic adaptation, cultural adaptation has been important. Forest dwellers tend to be small, with a light muscular frame (Beazley, 1990).Eastern Mediterranean hunter gatherers of 30,000 to 9,000 years ago stood at five feet ten inches.Their study showed an overall pattern of group differentiation and movement across the world, suggesting population expansions and genetic drift processes that would be expected over tens of thousands of years.This work has laid the foundation for a clearer understanding of our recent human history through the new science of phylogeography.