The central Anatolian plateau region is dotted with mountains and denuded of trees.
It has a semi-arid climate with high temperatures in summer and low ones in winter.
The Black Sea peoples settled and farmed the valleys and narrow alluvial fans of the area's rivers, developing a form of steep slope agriculture to grow vegetables and fruits.
Tea, the major cash crop, did not become popular until the 1960s.
Eastern Anatolia is the most mountainous, remote, undeveloped, and sparsely populated region.
Its elevation and cold temperatures make it less suitable for crop cultivation than the rest of Anatolia.
A tribal social organization survived longer in this area among the Turkish and Kurdish peoples.
Because Asia Minor had been home to Lydians, Hittites, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, and Ottomans over the centuries, it is dotted with historic monuments.
Physiographically, the country may be divided into five regions.
The English word "Turkish" comes from the ancient Turkish word Türk , which can be used as an adjective or a proper noun. After decades of nationalistic indoctrination, most citizens self-identify as Turks regardless of ethnic background.
Some of the major non-Turkish ethnic groups—the Kurds in the southeast, the Arabs in the south, the Laz of the western Black Sea coast, and the Georgians in the northeast and northwest—express double identities. Turkey occupies Asia Minor and a small portion of Europe.