Nilsson (2003) also had a strong focus in this area seeing: broadmindedness; understanding; respect and empathy for other people, their culture, values and way of life; and an understanding of the nature of racism, as integral to intercultural competence.
More recently interest has increased in fundamentally rethinking curriculum so that graduates are equipped to live and work successfully in our interdependent, multicultural world (a transformative approach).
The context of the curriculum also needs to move beyond Western-Eurocentric topics and views to incorporate a range of perspectives and ideas (Andreotti, 2011).
Early attempts at internationalisation often involved the additive approach (Banks, 1999) of including an international case study in the curriculum to show awareness of historical, local and global perspectives.Educating students for global citizenship requires not only a knowledge of the world but also a concern and a willingness to act. Engaging the gate keepers: Faculty perspectives on developing curriculum for globally responsible citizenship. These ideas are challenging personally and intellectually and can cause discomfort and distress (Reid and Hellsten, 2008; Nussbaum, 2004). A global citizen is someone who: Maidenhead: Open University Press. Internationalization of higher education in theory is "the process of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of postsecondary education." Internationalization of higher education in practice is "the process of commercializing research and postsecondary education, and international competition for the recruitment of foreign students from wealthy and privileged countries in order to generate revenue, secure national profile, and build international reputation." The main components of internationalization of higher education are global competition for talents, recruitment of international students, development of international branch campuses, students, staff and scholars exchange programs, internationalization of the curriculum, and research and education partnerships between institutions regionally and internationally.Instrumentalism can be contrasted with idealism in terms of hidden ideocultural goals.Educationalists accept internationalization in higher education (HE) as a way of broadening the academic experiences of students and academic staff.‘Strategies’ indicate the most concrete level and comprise the academic and organizational initiatives at the institutional level.Schoorman, like Knight (2003) emphasises the comprehensive, ongoing, multifaceted and integrated nature of internationalisation, but her counterhegemonic stance and program of action speaks to a transformative curriculum.Schoorman’s definition is embedded in critical pedagogy which makes it necessarily counter-hegemonic.A critical pedagogy approach also demands a student-centred pedagogy with students actively engaged in the construction of knowledge, teachers moving to the role of facilitator of learning, developing students’ skills of critical thinking, analysis and reflection (Brookfield, 2005). Education for global citizenship: a guide for schools. Chapter 17 The future of research in international pedagogies. This environment builds students’ interpersonal skills and sense of ethics. Retrieved December 26, 2010 from _citizenship_a_guide_for_Reid, A.