Critical pedagogy critiques the use of education to support current economic systems, the offering of a limited range of cultural perspectives and use of a teacher-centred pedagogy (Aronwitz and Giroux, 1991).
A counter-hegemonic curriculum would see the context as one of global economic interdependence, and the need to prepare students through active pedagogies, for their multicultural, interdependent world.
A critical pedagogy approach also demands a student-centred pedagogy with students actively engaged in the construction of knowledge, teachers moving to the role of facilitator of learning, developing students’ skills of critical thinking, analysis and reflection (Brookfield, 2005). Education for global citizenship: a guide for schools. Chapter 17 The future of research in international pedagogies.
This environment builds students’ interpersonal skills and sense of ethics. Retrieved December 26, 2010 from _citizenship_a_guide_for_Reid, A.
The context of the curriculum also needs to move beyond Western-Eurocentric topics and views to incorporate a range of perspectives and ideas (Andreotti, 2011).
Students and educators can then develop multicultural awareness and skills so as to be responsible, understanding, creative and effective national and global citizens.
Whalley (1997) stressed the need for us to identify limitations in our personal and professional lives arising from our ethnocentrism and Giroux (1998) saw the need to provide safe spaces for students to critically engage teachers and other students.
The attempts to define Io C and introduce ideas of global citizenship demonstrate that it is a process that critically engages with the notions of social and cultural differences in our educational environments and aims to achieve transformations of knowledge and power.
The emphasis placed on these components will reflect how the institution, the discipline and the teaching staff conceptualise internationalisation.
Early attempts at internationalisation often involved the additive approach (Banks, 1999) of including an international case study in the curriculum to show awareness of historical, local and global perspectives.